A number of Khoja families resented the direct control of the Imam on community affairs and formed a reform movement, some even claimed that Khojas were originally a sunni community which resulted in a court case which ruled in favor of the Aga Khan I.
In the early 1800s, some Khojas went for Ziyarat and while in Najaf, they met the Twelver Mujtahid of the time, Sheikh Zainul Aabedeen Mazandarani. During their discussions they converted to Twlever Shi'ism, at the behest of Sheikh Mazandarani, Mullah Kader Hussein arrived in the subcontinent several more Khoja families left the Ismaili sect and learnt from Mullah Kader, the principles of the Twelver Shi'a faith.
A student of Mullah Kader Hussein, Haji Ghulamali Haji Ismail, remembered as Haji Naji was born in Bombay (now Mumbai, India) was a Gujarati speaking Twelver scholar who was instrumental in converting many Ismaili Shi'a to Twelver Shi'a Islam. He published magazines like Rah-e-Nijat and books of supplications in the Gujarati language. One such book, Majmuaa, is an integral part of Twelver Khoja literature to date. His speeches, his preaching, and his simple way of explaining the faith has earned him respect and he is revered by Twelver Khojas all around the world.